Recent Changes

Sunday, March 8

  1. page IRB - Recruitment Flyer Requirements edited The North Western University IRB (2015), provides what elements are appropriate for a recruitment …
    The North Western University IRB (2015), provides what elements are appropriate for a recruitment flyer meeting IRB requirements.
    The name of the study and the IRB protocol number
    A clear statement informing the study is specifically for research purposes, and include the purpose of the study.
    Compensation should be advertised, yet not be the main focus of the flyer.
    The name of the affiliated university or research group.
    Contact information for potential participants to call or email with additional concerns or questions.
    Qualifications required to participate.
    Types of advertising considered inappropriate for a recruitment flyer by IRB standards according to the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (2014) includes advertising that can be viewed as intimidating to the public. Advertising that is suggestive in what results may render. The IRB may also review the use of language and possible misleading messages conveyed. The advertisement should not imply a guarantee of a solution, treatment, or a remedy. Wording should be clear the study is solely for investigative purposes.
    Virginia Tech IRB (2010), offers insight on the university’s requirements for storing and protecting subject information. For example, there is a designated time period for how long records can be kept once the study is complete, and is accessible at the discretion of the lead scientist if needing to perform additional tasks related to the research. Once the designated time has ended all identifying information of each subject must be erased. If anyone is looking to remove subject records from the premises can do so while ensuring identifiable documentation is protected, maintaining concealment. During the study subject information is only accessible to those approved by the university’s IRB. To further ensure subject privacy research data that can easily be associated to a subject’s identity is not included among stored data. Additional documentation is stored in a separate physical location under lock and key or encrypted and requiring a passcode if electronically preserved. Elements of the study are protected by being stored in separated locations, including data obtained from the research, consent forms, and the key used to decipher study codes (Virginia Tech IRB, 2010).
    References
    Policy for the Retention, Storage and Transfer of Human Subjects Research Records. (2010, July). Virginia Tech Institutional Review Board. Retrieved from http://www.irb.vt.edu/documents/data_retention_transfer_policy.pdfRecruiting subjects-information sheet: Guidance for Institutional Review
    Boards and Clinical Investigators. (2014, June). U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm126428.htm
    Recruitment materials and guidelines. (2015, March). Northwestern University Research Institutional Review Board. Retrieved from http://irb.northwestern.edu/process/new-study/requirements/recruitment-materials-guidelines

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    3:19 pm

Sunday, February 22

  1. msg Consideration message posted Consideration What is one way a researcher can determine if his/her study requires identifying the participants a…
    Consideration
    What is one way a researcher can determine if his/her study requires identifying the participants as opposed to surveying an anonymous sample?
    1. The researcher will require the collection of data from the same group of people more than once, for test-retest reliability *
    2. The researcher will require a large sample size
    3. The researcher will require a diverse sample of participants
    4. The researcher does not need to follow up with participants
    5. The researcher needs to know how many males and females are participating in the study
    1:58 pm

Monday, February 16

  1. msg Consideration message posted Consideration Multiple choice question: Which of the following is considered to be a major benefit to using a co…
    Consideration
    Multiple choice question:
    Which of the following is considered to be a major benefit to using a confidential method over an anonymous one?
    A. Easier to conduct
    B. Long term collection of data*
    C. Participants are more likely to be honest
    D. There is no way for the participants information to be linked to their identity
    12:34 pm

Sunday, February 15

  1. page 2. Tea Room Trade edited ... Humphreys' Research: Ethical violations Review of Laud Humphreys' research on the tearoom tra…
    ...
    Humphreys' Research: Ethical violations
    Review of Laud Humphreys' research on the tearoom trade found many violations of current research ethical practices. One significant violation was Humphreys deceiving the men using the public bathrooms (tearooms) that he was only a participant, a lookout for the police. He did not inform the participants he observed, then followed and surveyed, that he was a researcher observing behavior and using survey measurements to gather data for a dissertation study. Another significant violation was Humphreys not providing informed consent of his identity as a researcher to the participants, of the demographic data survey the "participants" completed, and his intentions of using the data from the survey. A third ethical violation that occurred was Humphreys' invasion of the participants' privacy. According to SexInfo Online (2015), after observing the men in the tearoom, "Humphreys wrote down the license plate numbers of the men whom he observed and traced them to their homes, where he had them fill out a questionnaire, pretending that it was for a general 'social health survey.'"
    ...
    Trade influenced current research ethicsResearchers now have an obligation to adhere to guidelines and regulations in regards to the treatment and well-being of their test subjects and research participants. One of the first violations Humphreys committed was neglecting to inform all of the people he was observing that he was, in fact, using them for observation and study and further, neglected to fully and honestly disclose the nature of his research. Researchers must also now verify that participants completely understand their role in the study and how the findings will be used, and must assert their free and clear willingness to be a part of any such project. It is expected that researchers will exercise moral and ethical behavior in deeming the competency and ability of their subjects to agree to any and all terms and expectations. Most importantly, current research ethics mandate obtaining informed consent of all participants, assuring the protection of each individual’s freedom.
    References
    Lenza, M. (2004, March 4). Controversies surrounding laud humphrey's tearoom trade: an unsettling example of politics and power in methodological critiques. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 24, 20-31.
    SexInfo Online. (2015). The tearoom trade. Retrieved from http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/sexinfo/article/tearoom-trade.
    Sieber, J. (1977). Laud Humphreys and the Tearoom Sex Study. Retrieved January 29, 2015, from http://web.missouri.edu/~bondesonw/Laud.html.
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    9:03 pm
  2. msg Consideration message posted Consideration Edit to the above: A prime example of the above would be a researcher using an inappropriate onlin…
    Consideration
    Edit to the above:
    A prime example of the above would be a researcher using an inappropriate online source to collect participant interviews, such as Facebook, on a public computer. If the researcher does not sign out of their account or is using an unsecured connection, anyone would be able to easily view their interviews and thus completely compromise the privacy and confidentiality of their participants.
    6:27 pm

Thursday, February 12

  1. page 6. Truthtelling and Deception edited ... Whether the deception is active or passive, it has the potential to misguide the results. This…
    ...
    Whether the deception is active or passive, it has the potential to misguide the results. This challenges the researcher to trust and remind the participants of the major importance of honesty and complete truthtelling. Without true answers for true results and findings, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to further our knowledge and understanding of human sexuality for the progress of the field.
    Give one example that illustrates the issue.
    ...
    female" categories. About half of the participants answered the questions while hooked up to a machine that they were told could detect lies (the machine actually did nothing). The males who were not attached the machine stated having more sex partners than those that were attached the machine. Females who were not attached the machine reported having fewer sex partners than those attached to the machine. Fisher concluded that the students not hooked up to the machine may have been lying to fit their gender stereotypes (Novotney, 2013).
    Interestingly, the answers to questions about behaviors not related to sexuality (such as lifting weights) had equally similar results from those attached to the machine and not attached to the machine (Novotney, 2013). This suggests that people are more likely to lie about more personal details, like sex-related issues.

    References
    Kimmel, A. J. (1998). In defense of deception. American Psychologist, 53(7), 803-805. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.53.7.803
    Miller, Gluck & Wendler (2008). Debriefing and accountability in deceptive research. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 18(3): 235-251.
    Novotney, A. (2013). Students lie about their sex lives to match gender expectations, study suggests. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/gradpsych/2013/09/gender-expectations.aspx
    Randall Cottrell & James McKenzie (2005). Health Promotion & Education Research Methods Using the Five-Chapter Thesis/Dissertation Model. 2nd Ed. Salisbury, MA. Jones & Bartlett.
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    5:15 pm
  2. page 6. Truthtelling and Deception edited ... Will participants have access to the research results? What challenges does it represent for …
    ...
    Will participants have access to the research results?
    What challenges does it represent for research around sexuality related research?
    ...
    of the findings. For example,findings (Cottrell & McKenzie, 2005). Many sexuality researchers conduct their studies with help of surveys, inquiring about the aspect of sexuality research in question. Asking participants to confess their very personal feelings, attitudes, and beliefs about sex related issues can cause them to hesitate and, perhaps, fib to make their answer something more stereotypical to sound "better" or more "normal."
    Terri Fisher, a university psychologist who conducted a short experiment on this states, "there is something unique about sexuality that leads people to care more about matching the stereotypes for their gender" (Novotney, 2013).
    Whether the deception is active or passive, it has the potential to misguide the results. This challenges the researcher to trust and remind the participants of the major importance of honesty and complete truthtelling. Without true answers for true results and findings, it would be difficult, if not impossible, to further our knowledge and understanding of human sexuality for the progress of the field.

    Give one example that illustrates the issue.
    An example of how deception is used by the participants of a sexuality study is illustrated by Terri Fisher's students. She asked about 300 students to take a survey that had 124 questions asking how often they acted upon certain behaviors, both sex related and otherwise. Fisher categorized each of the questions into "typically male" and "typically female" categories.
    References
    Kimmel, A. J. (1998). In defense of deception. American Psychologist, 53(7), 803-805. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.53.7.803
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    5:03 pm
  3. page 6. Truthtelling and Deception edited ... Will participants have access to the research results? What challenges does it represent for …
    ...
    Will participants have access to the research results?
    What challenges does it represent for research around sexuality related research?
    Deception can pose many problems when it comes to sexuality research. As mentioned above, misinformation can skew the results of the findings. For example,
    Give one example that illustrates the issue.
    References
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    4:26 pm
  4. page 8. The IRB edited Institutional Review Boards Jenaee McWhirter-Wingfield, Kayleigh Sheppard, and Emily Shown Pl…

    Institutional Review Boards
    Jenaee McWhirter-Wingfield, Kayleigh Sheppard, and Emily Shown
    Please see attached document for appropriate formatting
    {IRB - Jenaee McWhirter-Wingfield, Kayleigh Sheppard, and Emily Shown.docx}
    What is an Institutional Review Board?
    The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a carefully selected group of persons that work together to ensure all individuals asked to participate in any kind of research study have their rights and well beings protected. Established in 1981 as a provision to the National Research Act (Public Law 93-348) passed by Congress in 1974, the act had initially given the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) the task to institute federal regulations with policies on the protection of human subjects in research studies. In 1981, the Department of Health and Human Services (formerly HEW) approved Title 45, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 46, Protection of Human Subjects (45 CFR Part 46), which required all federally funded research to follow specific guidelines when working with human subjects. One of these guidelines specifically called for the use of an institutional review board. The IRB may also be referred to as an ethical review board, a research advisory committee, or human subjects’ committee (Cottrell & McKenzie, 2005).
    Who usually comprises such a Board?
    To ensure the Institutional Review Board is able to complete comprehensive and sufficient evaluations of research studies, federal guidelines state that the board must have a minimum of five members of different backgrounds. These members must be comprised of individuals of diverse representation that have adequate experience and expertise, and those with sufficient knowledge regarding the commitments, regulations, and standards set forth by institutions and law. In addition to this, there needs to be at least one individual on the board who has no affiliation (personal, professional, or familial) with the institution conducting the study. There may be times when the IRB invites another person onto the board who can contribute their knowledge of expertise in an area not already established amongst members of the board. It is not uncommon for a board to have ten to twenty or more members in order to fulfill all the necessary requirements of representation amongst its members (Cottrell & McKenzie, 2005).
    What are the general tasks of an IRB?
    The main task of the Institutional Review Board is to ensure that human subjects’ rights are protected within experimental methods. Members of the IRB meet up approximately once a month to review submissions of research proposals; this is known as the full committee review and the project must receive a majority vote in order to be granted approval. The IRB can approve, disapprove, or request modifications to proposals. Experimental designs can be approved outside of full committee meetings if they meet certain criteria such as posing minimal risk to participants of the study. At any point in time during the research process if changes are to be made to the experiment they also require IRB approval. These can be big changes to protocols or small details like what is displayed on flyers advertising for participants (“Widener University,” n.d.).
    What are their greatest concerns?
    The IRB’s greatest concerns are highly based on protecting participants’ mental and physical health during research. IRB’s want to ensure that participants are well aware of what they will be engaging in, while also ensuring that there aren’t any barriers preventing them from making the choice to participate or decline. For example, the IRB places limitations on the consent of minors and mentally disabled individuals in order to protect them from unknowingly making harmful decisions (Cottrell & McKenzie, 2005, pg. 32).
    The IRB is highly based upon acknowledging and identifying potential risk to participants. The text provides a box that lists the criteria for IRB approval for research and the minimizing of potential risks is prioritized (Cottrell & McKenzie, 2005, pg. 104). This criteria is very important in order to ensure that the benefits outweigh the potential risks.
    References
    Cottrell, R., & McKenzie, J. (2005). Health promotion and education research methods: Using the five chapter thesis/dissertation model
    (2nd ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett.
    Widener University (n.d.). Institutional Review Board (IRB) Office. Retrieved from:
    https://prod.campuscruiser.com/q?pg=offices_welcome&tg=OfficeWelcome&cmd=switch&cx=22.97-
    51.3073&tabId=OfficeWelcome_ODJdrYz5Member

    A Step-by-Step Guide to Completing a Widener Institutional Review Board Proposal
    Megan Ulrich & Shane'a Thomas
    ...
    References
    Widener University (n.d.). Institutional Review Board (IRB) Office. Retrieved from: https://prod.campuscruiser.com/PageServlet?pg=offices_welcome&tg=OfficeWelcome&cx=22.97-51.3073

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    3:39 pm

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